Here is a nice article about the 60th anniversary of the invention of the transistor. Much of what we take for granted today couldn't exist without it. Like the computer I am typing this on, and the router that takes it to the internet, and so on you get the idea. The interesting part of the article is talking about the future of the chip as it gets more and more dense. The key metric seems to be that they are approaching the size of an atom.
See, The Sydney Morning Herald - The transistor at 60